Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1 April 1621 – 19 December 1675) was the tenth guru of Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was also a scholar, writer and a poet, well-versed in many languages: Sanskrit, Persian, Punjabi, Arabic, Awadhi and Braj Bhasha. His father was Guru Teg Bahadur who was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was nine years old when he had to overtake the leadership. The tenth Guru is predominantly known for founding the Khalsa and instituting the five articles of the Sikh faith: kesh (hair), kacchera (a specific type of undergarment), kangha(comb), kada (iron bracelet) and kirpan (small sword). Guru Gobind Singh Ji also gave Khalsa – the warrior community a new surname, Singh. After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa. He then was the sixth Khalsa and changed his name from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh. He later declared the Holy Scriptures of Guru Granth Sahib Ji as the permanent guru of Sikhism.